Conard's Photo Etching Blog

Electroforming - additive meets micro manufacturing

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Sep 24, 2019 12:18:00 PM
additive manufacturing
3D printing may get a lot of press, but in reality it is just one of about half a dozen well-established additive manufacturing processes that have existed for decades and in the case of electroforming, centuries.
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Topics: Electroforming

How Photo Etching is a Capable Alternative to Other Metal Fabricating Processes

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Dec 7, 2018 4:28:33 PM

 Photo Etching vs. "the Others"

Photochemical machining is the industry's preferred moniker for this metal fabrication process.  It is also readily called photo or chemical etching,  The process derived from the then-nascent printed circuit board industry in the 1950s. The fabrication steps are nearly identical.

More recognized processes such as metal stamping and punching utilize hardened steel tools to shape metal parts and have long histories in metal fabrication.  Plasma, laser and water jet cutting utilize directed energy to shape parts. And, wire EDM uses a wire electrode to burn away metal. In these cases the evolution of CNC (computer numerical control) in the 1970s allowed part geometries to be programmed directly into cutting machines.

The most "traditional" processes, stamping and punching, are sort of "brute force" processes, shearing metal using powerful presses.  Plasma, laser and EDM rely on intense energy, literally burning their way through metal.  Waterjet is sort of the "hot knife through butter" option, but you definitely wouldn't want to get in the way of a pressurized stream of water that can cut through an inch of steel!

Photo etching, in contrast, would be like running a sheet of metal through your dishwasher and then taking out a sheet of parts.

"Stress Free" Precision Metal Fabricating 

Photo etching is deemed a "non-conventional" method that fits alongside plasma, laser, waterjet and wire EDM for manufacturing many types of metal parts. 

The more well-known fabrication methods have their own sets of undesirable side effects.  Stamping and punching produce burrs from the shearing forces, and often cause "cold working" of the metal that may need to be alleviated by annealing. Plasma, laser and wire EDM impart significant heat into the work material.  Plasma operates at about 25000 deg F; laser and EDM typically between 2500 and 5000 deg F. In these cases, the side effects of the intense heat include what are called "heat-affected zones" or recast layers that need to be rectified by secondary processes.

Photo etching completely avoids all of these side effects. The maximum temperature metal is exposed to in etching is 165 deg F. In addition, etching is particularly capable with very thin materials (routinely down to .001")--which is beyond what is in the comfort zone for the other processes. Etching is also very capable with regard to both reflective and thermally conductive metals such as aluminum and copper, which can be problematic for lasers in particular.. 

Here's a quick run down of etching specs and tolerances.

For more detail:

Download the Guide

The photo etching process is used for fabricating metal parts for many different industrial applications including sensors, shields, retainers, flat springs, strain gauges, filters, screens, grids, shims, gaskets and more. For electronics, etching is used to produce a host of metal components used in RF, microwave and wireless applications, as well as lids and leadframes for microelectronics packaging.  Photo etched direct bond copper is increasingly used in power electronic applications, particularly in wireless devices. It is also used to produce a host of electrical contacts, buss bars and other electrical interconnect devices.

Get the picture here : 3-minute video shows the process
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Topics: Photo chemical etching, FAQs

Essential Things to Know about Photo Etching

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Feb 20, 2018 9:08:26 AM

Why Metal thickness Matters so much in Etching

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Topics: Photo chemical etching, Metal Filtration, Cost of Photo Etching

How did you ever survive before photo etching?

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Feb 6, 2018 11:23:47 AM

We've seen it time and again. From never heard of it to can't manage without it. Photo etching becomes the go-to solution for precision metal parts fabricating once people understand its advantages. Among the key features are inexpensive, rapidly produced phototools ( 1 day), the ability to process metal foils as thin as .0005 inches (really!), and completely "stress free machining": no burrs and no mechanical or thermal effects.

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Topics: Photo chemical etching

How Photo Etching Compares in Cost

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Nov 11, 2016 3:30:18 PM

Many design platforms now offer some basic cost estimating for the fabrication processes that are already programmed in. But NONE of them know anything about photochemical machining, so how can you be expected to know whether etching might be your best option.

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Topics: metal etching

How to Become a Photo Etching Ace

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on May 23, 2016 4:10:29 PM

In my experience, professionals involved in designing, engineering, and sourcing precision metal components have a pretty good grasp of a variety of fabrication processes. Except for photochemical machining (metal etching), to which the response is usually a blank look, shrugged shoulders and a negative head nod. You don't have to be one of those people any more.

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Topics: Photo chemical etching

Do You Know Manufacturing's Best Kept Secret?

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Mar 18, 2016 12:04:27 PM

You may be aces on the intricacies of stamping, laser, plasma, waterjet and EDM. But what do you know about the other metal fabrication process that is solving problems for engineers in many industries every day? “Which one?” you ask?

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Topics: Photo chemical etching

Handy Facts About Photochemical Etching

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Jan 13, 2016 1:04:18 PM

Metal Thickness Drives Everything

Minimum feature sizes, dimensional tolerances and costs are directly affected by metal thickness.

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Topics: Photo chemical etching

The Benefits of Photo Etching [INFOGRAPHIC]

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Oct 9, 2015 8:51:00 AM

You have a few options when it comes to parts fabrication from sheet or strip metal. Here are some methods that are best for efficiency, cost effectiveness and quality.

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Topics: Quality

3 reasons to celebrate photo etching during Manufacturing Month

Posted by Kathleen Stillman on Oct 6, 2015 8:59:00 AM

The first Friday of October - known as National Manufacturing Day - kicks off what is now considered Manufacturing Month here in the U.S. All throughout the month, manufacturers and educational institutions will lead discussions and panels about the state of U.S. manufacturing now and in the future. The American manufacturing industry has never been as exciting as it is today, with so many different technological and industrial innovations converging to change the sector as a whole.

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Topics: Photo chemical etching, Manufacturing Industry News